Tag Archives: ww1

‘Battlebags and Blimps’–uncovering our lost WW1 aviation heritage

In our latest Blog Post, Keith Lilley talks about the impact of military flying during WW1, their flying stations and Ireland’s rich history of such establishments that include aerodromes and airship stations.

Continue reading ‘Battlebags and Blimps’–uncovering our lost WW1 aviation heritage

Digital First World War content: From deluge to drought

In this latest Blog post by Paul Ell, the phenomenon of “Digital Overload” is mapped against the appetite for information on WW1.

Continue reading Digital First World War content: From deluge to drought

Letters from the Holy Land: the influence of the Middle Eastern campaign in WW1 on Welsh culture and society

In this latest Guest Blog by Gethin Matthews, he talks about the imagery of the Holy Land and how middle eastern culture came ultimately to affect Welsh culture and society.

The First World War was a world-wide war which transported millions of young men away from their homes to foreign lands. Often these men sought an anchor which could help them make sense of their unfamiliar surroundings as they tried to convey their experiences to their loved ones. In the case of Welshmen who found themselves in Egypt and Palestine, they had a ready vocabulary to describe these countries which came straight from the Bible. The idea of the campaign in the ‘Holy Land’ struck a chord with newspapers and opinion-formers back in Wales, and shaped ideas which persisted with the Welsh public.

Continue reading Letters from the Holy Land: the influence of the Middle Eastern campaign in WW1 on Welsh culture and society

The Zeebrugge Raid: Creating a Legend

In our latest blog Professor Mark Connelly talks about the British naval raid on Zeebrugge, which took place on 23rd April 1918, and its commemoration over time.

Continue reading The Zeebrugge Raid: Creating a Legend

Making Memory and Legacy: Virtual Archives of Conflict from WW1 to The Troubles

In this latest Blog Post, Dr Johanne Devlin Trew,  from Ulster University & the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Funded Living Legacies World War One Engagement Centre, talks all things ‘Republican Crafts’.

On Wednesday March 14, 2018, a community conference and exhibition entitled Irish Republican Prison Crafts: Making Memory and Legacy was held at Belfast’s historical Crumlin Road Gaol. It showcased the Heritage Lottery funded project of Coiste na nIarchimí [Republican ex-prisoners organisation], supported by Living Legacies, Ulster University and The Open University. The goal of the project was to create a virtual archive of conflict-related Republican prison crafts that are in the possession of prisoner families and to capture the stories surrounding these objects of memory. The project took as a model the virtual archive developed by Living Legacies to record WW1 material sourced from the general public.

Continue reading Making Memory and Legacy: Virtual Archives of Conflict from WW1 to The Troubles

Performing Commemorations Project: Dramatic Responses to the Legacies of the First World War

On 10 February, Kurt Taroff and Michelle Young from the Arts & Humanities Research Council-funded “Living Legacies 1914-18” engagement centre, led a full-day workshop in the Brian Friel Theatre at Queen’s University Belfast. Continue reading Performing Commemorations Project: Dramatic Responses to the Legacies of the First World War

The Centre for Hidden Histories: Taking the First World War into Schools

Pupils from Blue Coat Junior School give a performance at St Matthew’s Church, Walsall on Remembrance Day 2016

The Centre for Hidden Histories: Taking the First World War into Schools

By Michael Noble, Centre Co-ordinator for the AHRC Funded WW1 Engagement Centre for Hidden Histories. More details on these Centres can be found by looking at the AHRC’s website.   Continue reading The Centre for Hidden Histories: Taking the First World War into Schools

Over Here: American Aviation during the First World War

Handley Page Aircraft, between ca. 1915 and ca. 1920. Picture courtesy of Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ggb2006002611/                                                           Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

In this latest Guest Blog, Professor Ross Wilson, from Chichester University, talks about the visiting US forces that were present in West Sussex and their aviation contribution during WW1. Continue reading Over Here: American Aviation during the First World War

Visions of the Front, 1916-18

Self-taught artist Leading Seaman W L Foster of the Beagle Class destroyer HMS BULLDOG, showing two of his shipmates examples of his art carried out in off-duty hours.Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205152802
SEAMAN ARTIST FROM NORTHUMBERLAND SERVING ABOARD THE BULLDOG. 11 NOVEMBER 1943, PORTSMOUTH. (A 20320) Self-taught artist Leading Seaman W L Foster of the Beagle Class destroyer HMS BULLDOG, showing two of his shipmates examples of his art carried out in off-duty hours. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205152802 © IWM (A 20320)

In this latest Guest Blog, Dr Ana Carden-Coyne, an AHRC WW1 Expert from the Centre for the Cultural History of War, University of Manchester, talks Art and its importance throughout WW1.

In 1914, Laurence Haward, the first Director of the Manchester Art Gallery, began collecting important works of war art. Haward spoke of modern war not as a romantic adventure or performance of heroic make-believe, but bitterness and courage, folly and waste. The artist, he concluded, was in tune with the meaning and impact of war, and ‘will reflect that world and the human emotions it arouses’. Haward’s words made a powerful testimony for the artists of the period who strove to communicate the sensation and impact of modern war.

THE WAR ARTIST JOHN SINGER SARGENT (HU 56114) Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205182180
THE WAR ARTIST JOHN SINGER SARGENT (HU 56114) Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205182180

The First World War saw over 2 million soldiers from Britain and the Dominions wounded. Whether conscript or volunteer, officer or other ranks, British or colonial, military medical organisations played a pivotal role in evacuating the wounded from the frontline to the casualties and treating patients in order to return to the front. Artists depicted the chaos of the frontline casualty, the wounded soldier’s experience of pain and helplessness, and medical attempts to alleviate the agony of wounds or the shock of witnessing the death of comrades. Countering such images of pain, were also images of men’s suffering relieved, seen in the efforts of stretcher-bearers and nurses. Doctors also shared the personal cost of the war, with thousands killed and wounded. Artists, many with frontline experiences as soldiers or as medical workers, often confronted what they witnessed as the inhumanity of modern war with gestures of both collective pain and humane attempts to provide assistance. Paul Nash, for instance, depicted ashen-faced stretcher-bearers carrying their wounded burden across a landscape pitted with charred trees (Wounded, Passchendaele, 1918).

Nash, Paul; Wounded, Passchendaele; Manchester Art Gallery; http://www.artuk.org/artworks/wounded-passchendaele-205681
Nash, Paul; Wounded, Passchendaele; Photo Credit: Manchester Art Gallery; http://www.artuk.org/artworks/wounded-passchendaele-205681. Available under a CC BY-NC-ND licence

Under the lurid green sky, almost gangrenous in tone, the arduous journey of evacuation transforms an everyday occurrence on the frontline into an apocalyptic scene.

THE ARMISTICE DAY, 11 NOVEMBER 1918 (Q 42481) The 'Cease Fire', Artists' Rifles, 11th November 1918. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205276911
THE ARMISTICE DAY, 11 NOVEMBER 1918 (Q 42481) The ‘Cease Fire’, Artists’ Rifles, 11th November 1918. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205276911 © IWM (Q 42481)

Combining pathos and intimacy with epic power, Henry Lamb recreated the medical encounter of the First World War in his monumental oil painting, Advanced Dressing Station on the Struma, 1916 (183.6 x 212.3cm). Lamb finished the work in 1921, but before that he had worked as a doctor for the Royal Army Medical Corps in Salonika (Thessaloniki) in Greece. This front has received far less attention in the commemoration culture of the last few years, but it held a deep meaning for Lamb. The campaign around the river Struma aimed to push back the Bulgarian advance into eastern Greece. The area was targeted for the liberation of Serbia from the Central Powers. From the position of a medical officer, Lamb witnessed the casualties engaged in the British push across the river towards the strategic city of Serres in Greek Macedonia.

Copyright Estate of Henry Lamb. Photo Credit: Manchester Art Gallery © All rights reserved.

Advance Dressing Station on the Struma. ©Estate of Henry Lamb. Photo Credit: Manchester Art Gallery © All rights reserved.  Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holder.

The scene of a dressing station set deep in the forest is modernist in design but bears strong religious overtones that lend emotional weight to the image of helping the wounded. The central group focuses on the relationship between a wounded man and a stretcher-bearer, who attends him with a cup of water, a great relief that many soldiers wrote about as the comfort given between men. Thirst and cold were understood much later in the war as signs of hemorrhage and shock. The bearer’s hand gently touches the wounded man’s head, providing comfort symbolic of the pietà (Christian iconography of Mary cradling Jesus’ corpse).

THE WAR ARTISTS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR (Q 10195) Jules Arthur Joets, a French soldier-artist, painting an equestrian portrait of Field marshal Douglas Haig at Saint-Omer, 31 December 1917. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205245908
THE WAR ARTISTS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR (Q 10195) Jules Arthur Joets, a French soldier-artist, painting an equestrian portrait of Field marshal Douglas Haig at Saint-Omer, 31 December 1917. Copyright: © IWM.  Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205245908 © IWM (Q 10195)

Indeed, the pietà was often used in war-time humanitarian images of nurses caring for wounded men. But Lamb transforms the theme into an effigy of masculine care and the intimate brotherhood of shared suffering. Placed on the ledge of a shallow trench, the stretcher resembles an altar. In the right hand corner is a Thomas splint used for compound fractures, from which soldiers could die. Pathos is also created by the figure on the left, head in hand, perhaps affected by malaria, a common disease of this front, or perhaps a reference to psychological suffering. The central figure stands over the patient, staring pensively into the distance. Made three years after the end of the war, the composition of this painting symbolises the pain and succour of the entire conflict.

THE WAR ARTISTS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR (Q 27992) Mr. Bud Fisher, the American Cartoonist, working at his desk. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205288481
THE WAR ARTISTS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR (Q 27992) Mr. Bud Fisher, the American Cartoonist, working at his desk. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205288481 © IWM (Q 27992)

Henry Lamb was educated at Manchester Grammar School and studied medicine at the Manchester University Medical School. He left his studies for Paris, to attend the Académie de La Palette, where renowned modernists Jean Metzinger and Henri Le Fauconnier taught. The war compelled Lamb to finish his studies. He received a commission in the Royal Army Medical Corps and was with the Northumbrian Field Ambulance Unit in Salonika from August 1916 to March 1917. He was later sent to Palestine and awarded the Military Cross for his courage in tending the wounded during the bombardment of 5th Inniskilling Fusiliers at Jiljila in early May 1918, an incident he later depicted in an Imperial War Museum commission, Irish troops in the Judean hills surprised by a Turkish bombardment.

Irish Troops in the Judaean Hills Surprised By A Turkish Bombardment, 1919 (Art.IWM ART 2746) image: An elevated viewpoint of a scene showing an encampment under bombardment at an hour before evening 'stand to'. Dense clouds of smoke drift across the scene from exploding shells. Soldiers run and attempt to shelter from the bombardment, while two soldiers carry a wounded soldier in the lower right of the composition. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/15761
(Lamb, Henry) Irish Troops in the Judaean Hills Surprised By A Turkish Bombardment, 1919 (Art.IWM ART 2746) image: An elevated viewpoint of a scene showing an encampment under bombardment at an hour before evening ‘stand to’.
Dense clouds of smoke drift across the scene from exploding shells. Soldiers run and attempt to shelter from the bombardment, while two soldiers carry a wounded soldier in the lower right of the composition. Copyright: © IWM (Art.IWM ART2746). Original Source:http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/15761. With kind permission from the Imperial War Museum.

In May 1918, he arrived on the Western Front where he suffered gas poisoning and was invalided home ahead of the Armistice. Lamb exhibited a number of drawings and watercolours at Manchester City Art Gallery in 1920. One of these prompted the Gallery Director, Lawrence Haward, to commission Lamb to make this major painting as the beginning of a war art collection for Manchester City Art Gallery.

This was on display among other works at the award-winning Whitworth Art Gallery, co-curated by Senior Curator David Morris and Ana Carden-Coyne (Centre for the Cultural History of War, University of Manchester). Visions of the Front, 1916-1918 and ended on November 20, 2016, although a descriptive video describing the picture is online.

THE MACEDONIAN CAMPAIGN, 1915-1918 (Q 13742) A poster, executed in colour, for a variety show titled ‘Hairlock Combs’, given on board HMS LORD NELSON. It is the work of Commander Millot, quite a notable artist, and Naval Attache on the staff of Vice-Admiral John de Robeck. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205248891 © IWM (Q 13742)

 

After the Guns Fell Silent: Researching the medical and social care provided to British disabled ex-servicemen of the First World War

In this Guest Blog, Dr Jessica Meyer, an AHRC WW1 Expert, talks Medical and Social Care provided to ex-servicemen.

AA075348 - Ministry of Pensions & National Insurance © Historic England Archive
A georgian house with cows on the front lawn probably in Herefordshire, occupied by the Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance.  Image similar to one featured in country fair magazine, march 1955. Image AA075348 – Ministry of Pensions & National Insurance
© Historic England Archive. Used with kind permission of Historic England.

One of the most significant legacies of the First World War across Europe was the return home of a large number of men whose lives were profoundly altered by war-attributable disabilities.  In Britain, many of these men received aid and care from the State, in the form of the Ministry of Pensions, and a range of charitable institutions. Most, however, relied on their families for support, particularly their wives, mothers and other female relatives, to provide the medical and social care necessary for them to reintegrate into civil society.

© IWM (Art.IWM PST 12222)
Recruits Wanted (Art.IWM PST 12222) Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30892

Such support involved both physical and emotional labour. In 1921, Cannon Nisbet C. Marris wrote to the Regional Director of the Ministry of Pensions for the Nottingham Region about his son, Oswald, an ex-serviceman who suffered from functional paralysis, required ‘constant attention and is very helpless, requiring frequently two persons to move him in bed.’ [1] This work, Cannon Marris explained, was undertaken by himself and his wife.  Three years later, Mrs. W.H. Botterill described in her application for treatment assistance how, in addition to caring for her badly shell-shocked husband, she worked outside the home to ‘keep our home going, support myself, and provide my husband’s extra expenses, laundry, postage, etc.’ Just over a month later she suffered a breakdown due to what her doctor described as ‘overwork and strain.’ [2]

Mrs. Marris and Mrs. Botterill are only two of the women who appear in series PIN 26, (which are Ministry of Pension personal award files from the First World War held at the National Archives, London).  These 22,756 files represent only 2% of the approximately 1,137,800 First World War files ever created.  Nonetheless, they provide a rich resource of material for historians of the First World War and its medical, social and cultural legacy.  A tiny fraction of the available files have been used by historians to explore the cultural history of medicine and the war [3] but, as Michael Robinson has recently pointed out [https://fournationshistory.wordpress.com/2015/10/05/the-four-nations-and-beyond-the-post-armistice-experiences-of-shell-shocked-british-army-veterans/], a great deal of work on this material remains to be done.

© IWM (Art.IWM PST 5116)
New Scale of Separation Allowances (Art.IWM PST 5116)  Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/28413

The Men, Women and Care project, a five-year European Research Council Starting Grant-funded project currently underway at the University of Leeds, aims to facilitate future projects through the creation of a public database of the information contained in the PIN 26 files.  This will enable scholars to identify clusters of potentially relevant material by variables such as type of disability, amount of pension or gratuity, region of residence and existence of dependents. By publishing the database in conjunction with a separate catalogue series MH 106: Admission and Discharge Registers and Medical Sheets for Personnel of Expeditionary and Imperial Forces, 1914-1919 and the release of the 1921 national census, the project will provide resources to the next generation of scholars working on the legacy of the First World War in Britain.

© IWM (Art.IWM PST 11148)
Disabled Ex-Service Men (Art.IWM PST 13806) Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/31758

In the meantime, the four members of the Men, Women and Care team will be using the process of putting the database together to identify material within PIN 26 to further our own research into the ways in which care for disabled ex-servicemen shaped British society.  Our specific projects include looking at the nature and extent of family-based medical and social care, how distance from home influenced care provision, the role of stigma in care provision, and the work of religious charities in supporting disabled ex-servicemen and their families.

Through these projects we aim to recover the voices and experiences of both disabled ex-servicemen and the women who facilitated their reintegration into post-war society. Too often unrewarded for their efforts by the State and overlooked by scholarship, these women formed a vital element of the social order in the interwar years. Through the stories of women like Mrs Marris and Mrs Botterill we hope to learn more about the lives of women whose war work persisted long after the guns fell silent.

La Protection Du Reforme No2 © IWM (Art.IWM PST 11148)
La Protection du Réformé No. 2 [Protection for Category Two Invalided Soldiers] (Art.IWM PST 11148) Half-length depictions of two moustachioed, convalescent French soldiers, who face the viewer. The nearest man sits bare-headed with his hands crossed. The other soldier wears a serviceman’s kepi.  Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/22629
[1] The National Archives (TNA), PIN 26/19945, Cannon Nisbet C. Marris, Letter to Regional Director, Nottingham Region, Ministry of Pensions, 6th January, 1921.

[2] TNA, PIN 26/21239, Mrs W. H. Botterill, Application for Treatment Assistance, 5th March, 1924 ; Ella C. Flint, M.B., Report, 23rd April, 1924.

[3] See Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War (London: Reaktion Books, 1996); Jessica Meyer, Men of War: Masculinity and the First World War in Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).